Recently, a new class of psychedelic compounds named NBOMe (or 25X-NBOMe) has appeared on the illegal drug market. NBOMes are analogs of the 2C family of phenethylamine drugs, originally synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, that contain a N-(2-methoxy)benzyl substituent. The most frequently reported drugs from this group are 25I-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, and 25C-NBOMe. NBOMe compounds are ultrapotent and highly efficacious agonists of serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors (Ki values in the low nanomolar range) with more than 1000-fold selectivity for 5-HT2A compared with 5-HT1A. They display a higher affinity for 5-HT2A receptors than their 2C counterparts and have a markedly lower affinity, potency, and efficacy at the 5-HT2B receptor compared to 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C. The drugs are sold as blotter papers, or in powder, liquid, or tablet form, and they are administered sublingually/buccally, intravenously, via nasal insufflation, or by smoking. Since their introduction in the early 2010s, numerous reports have been published on clinical intoxications and fatalities resulting from the consumption of NBOMe compounds. Commonly observed adverse effects include visual and auditory hallucinations, confusion, anxiety, panic and fear, agitation, uncontrollable violent behavior, seizures, excited delirium, and sympathomimetic signs such as mydriasis, tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, and diaphoresis. Rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and multiorgan failure were also reported. This survey provides an updated overview of the pharmacological properties, the pattern of use, metabolism, and desired effects associated with NBOMe use. Special emphasis is given to cases of non-fatal and lethal intoxication involving these compounds. As the analysis of NBOMes in biological materials can be challenging even for laboratories applying modern sensitive techniques, this paper also presents the analytical methods most commonly used for the detection and identification of NBOMes and their metabolites.
Legal LSD – 25I-NBOMe is a legal alternative to LSD and is as good as LSD in its effects. Legal LSD 25I-NBOMe/Cimbi-5 or 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy phenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine. This legal high LSD alternative is structurally different to LSD by design but qualitatively the same. 25I-NBOMe must be held in the mouth to absorb through the mouth lining to achieve a psychedelic LSD experience.